DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Courses are offered in the following disciplines (click on link to go to discipline):

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ASTRONOMY

ASTR 121: Astronomy (3)
Theory and understanding of equipment to be used and objects to be viewed in ASTR 125. Study of optical instruments of astronomy, the earth's motions, the moon's motions, celestial mechanics, planets, the sun, the stars, and the galaxies.

ASTR 125: Observational Astronomy (1)
Actual observation by students of stars, galaxies, nebulae, planets, the moon, star clusters, and the Milky Way. Students will learn the theory and use of four-inch to 22-inch telescopes at the MacLean Observatory.

ASTR 222: Astrophotography (1)
Prerequisite: ASTR 125. Experience of the night sky through the "patient eye" of the photographic plate. Learn techniques for capturing film images of the moon, planets, star fields and constellations, as well as deep-sky objects such as galaxies and nebulae. The equipment used ranges from wide-angle lenses to the 22-inch motor-driven telescope of the MacLean Observatory.

ASTR 301: The Art of Modern Astronomy (3)
An overview of modern astronomy for non physics/astronomy majors and the general public. Besides the topics included in a regular astronomical course for non-majors, this course includes such topics as "Using Computers for Astronomical Research", "Bioastronomy" and "Astronomy and the Fine Arts". Astronomical discoveries of the unpredictable, of the origins of life and our cosmic neighborhood help us understand more about mankind, about our place in the Universe, as fine arts do through art, literature and music.

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BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

BIOL 101: Biology I (3)
Corequisite: BIOL 105. A study of biological principles including life chemistry, cell structure, respiration, photosynthesis, Mendelian genetics, DNA structure and function, protein synthesis, population genetics, natural selection, evolution, speciation, and ecology.

BIOL 102: Biology II (3)
Prerequisite: BIOL 101. Corequisite: BIOL 106. A study of the diversity of life including topics on bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. An emphasis is placed on ecological and evolutionary processes that have given rise to the immense diversity of organisms. Topics on vertebrate body structure and function are also covered.

BIOL 105: Biology Lab I (1)
Corequisite: BIOL 101. Laboratory and field exercises to accompany BIOL 101.

BIOL 106: Biology Lab II (1)
Prerequisite: BIOL 101, 105. Corequisite: BIOL 102. Laboratory and field exercises to accompany BIOL 102.

BIOL 221: Wildflowers and Plant Ecology (3)
A field class consisting of day hikes to some of Tahoe's most beautiful wildflower meadows and mountain peaks. Micro-environments and their specially adapted flora, pollination ecology, plant classification and identification. Field test and student project required. Five easy day-hikes to gorgeous wildflower areas in Tahoe ranging from lake level meadows to high mountain alpine fellfields.

BIOL 231: Wildflowers and Plant Ecology of Mt. Rainier (3)
From deep lush forests to magnificent subalpine tundra in the jewel of the Pacific Northwest-Mt. Rainier. Nine day-hikes, 10 nights camping in national park campgrounds.

BIOL 241: Central Sierra Flora (1)
A two-day field course in the foothills of Yosemite to explore and study some of the most beautiful and spectacular spring wildflower fields in the West. Students camp out and take short hikes both days. Study includes plant structure and function, pollination ecology, plant/environment interaction, taxonomy and identification.

BIOL 301: Animal Behavior (3)
Lab course must be taken concurrently. Behavior of animals from ecological and evolutionary perspectives, with emphasis on the importance of field environments. Includes an introduction to the concepts of ethology and sociobiology as they apply to both animals and humans.

BIOL 305: Animal Behavior Lab (1)
Laboratory and field exercises to accompany BIOL 301.

BIOL 321: Molecular Biology (2)
Prerequisite: BIOL 101. Theoretical and laboratory study of basic techniques of molecular biology, including isolation of nucleic acids, gel electrophoresis, restriction mapping, sequencing, cloning, and PCR.

BIOL 331: Anatomy and Physiology I (3)
Prerequisite: BIOL 101, BIOL 102. Corequisite: BIOL 335. Study of cell physiology and histology, and skeletal, muscular, nervous, and sensory systems.

BIOL 332: Anatomy and Physiology II (3)
Prerequisite: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 331. Corequisite: BIOL 336. Study of endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, immune, urinary, and reproductive systems.

BIOL 335: Anatomy and Physiology Lab I (1)
Laboratory to accompany BIOL 331.

BIOL 336: Anatomy and Physiology Lab II (1)
Laboratory to accompany BIOL 332

BIOL 341: Microbiology (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102. Corequisite: BIOL 345. Study of the phylogeny, physiology, identification, and ecology of microbes, including fungi, bacteria, algae, and protists. Applications include medicine, industry, brewing, and agriculture.

BIOL 345: Microbiology Lab (1)
Corequisite: BIOL 341. Identification, physiology, and ecology of microbes.

BIOL 350: Embryology and Developmental Biology (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102. Study of the genetics, molecular biology, and anatomy of the process of embryology. Emphasis on both anatomy of ontogeny and molecular biology mechanisms. Course covers various invertebrates, birds, and mammals.

BIOL 357: Lake Tahoe Basin Ecosystems (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, or permission of instructor. A field course that surveys and quantitatively analyzes several ecosystems within the Lake Tahoe basin. Ecosystem types include conifer and aspen forests, stream and riparian zones, wetlands, alpine meadows, and Lake Tahoe. Issues relating to environmental quality and management are included in the analyses.

BIOL 358: Desert and Montane Ecosystems (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, MATH 120, MATH 251, or permission of instructor. An examination of the diversity and functioning of ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin. Lectures present a general description of the regions and principles from ecosystem ecology. Field trips involve traveling to representative sites for descriptive and quantitative analyses. Issues in conservation and management are also addressed.

BIOL 359: Great Basin Flora (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102. A field-based course that emphasizes the taxonomic identification and ecology of bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms found in and around the Great Basin ecoregion. A mechanistic analysis of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of plants is used in the ecological analyses. Issues in conservation such as cattle grazing and mining land restoration are also examined.

BIOL 361: Evolution and Paleontology (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Study of the origin of life, evolution, mechanisms of evolution, paleontology, climate of ancient environments, physiology of dinosaurs, and genetics of evolution. Evidence of evolution and phylogenies.

BIOL 365: Evolution and Paleontology Lab (1)
Laboratory and field study to accompany BIOL 361. Fossils, computer studies of evolution and ecology, behavioral, and genetic studies demonstrating phylogenetic affinity and divergence. Will include weekend field trips.

BIOL 372: Current Topics in Biological Research (1).
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, ENVS 211, or permission of instructor. Students and faculty present current journal articles in biological sciences or environmental sciences in order to obtain an appreciation of methods, results and analyses associated with scientific research. Interests of class members dictate journals articles that are selected for presentation and discussion.

BIOL 381: Ecology (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, and CORE 101. Lab course must be taken concurrently. A study of principles from evolutionary ecology, population ecology, community ecology, and conservation biology. Topics include the geological history of diversity, natural selection, physiological ecology, population growth, competition, predation, succession, food webs, community stability, nutrient cycling, energetics, and island biogeography.

BIOL 385: Ecology Lab (1)
Laboratory, field, and computer simulations to accompany BIOL 381. Techniques in the analysis of population growth and dispersion, competition, predator-prey cycles, diversity indices, mark-recapture, fire ecological succession, and biophysical ecology.

BIOL 386: Intertidal Ecology of the Central Pacific Coast (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102. The tide pools of Monterrey contain some of the most diverse habitations on Earth. In this week-long summer course, students become competent naturalists in the area of intertidal ecology and invertebrate biology. Students do extensive fieldwork emphasizing the evolutionary relationships of the major groups of life on Earth. Students visit the Bodega Marine Laboratory, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, the Academy of Sciences, and the Marine Mammal Center. Students pay expenses for hostels and campground and their own meals.

BIOL 390: Internship in Biological Science (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in biological research. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

BIOL 403: Kinesiology (3)
Analysis of human movements based on study of skeletal, muscular, and joint structure recommended for pre-physical therapy, pre-medical and sports science students and massage therapists.

BIOL 407: Conservation Biology (3)
Prerequisites: ENVS 211, BIOL 381. Study of the origin and preservation of biological diversity. Conservation biology as a science has emerged due to the human population causing the extinction of species and loss of habitats throughout the biosphere. Topics include the genetics of small populations, extinction processes, introduced species, and habitat fragmentation. Specific case studies as the spotted owl, the great lakes of Africa and North America, and the California condor are used to illustrate the complex nature of conserving biological diversity.

BIOL 410: Genetics (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, BIOL 102, MATH 251. Introduction to the transmission and expression of genetic material as it occurs in nucleate organisms from yeast to man. The genetic biology of eukaryotes is considered on the molecular, cellular, developmental, familial and population levels, with emphasis on inferences drawn from experiments and observations.

BIOL 415: Genetics Lab (3)
Corequisite: BIOL 410. Introduction to modern molecular genetic techniques, including recombinant DNA technology, restriction mapping, Southern blotting, PCR, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics.

BIOL 420: Tropical Field Biology (3)
Field investigations of tropical ecosystems, including coastal, deciduous forests, cloud forests. Requires three weeks over Christmas break, plus meetings during the fall semester. Class includes features of ecology unique to tropics such as examples of coevolution, taxonomic diversity, and energetics. Research methods and research projects will be emphasized. There will be travel expenses to a tropical country that will be determined prior to the beginning of the semester. Shots and passports are also required.

BIOL 421: Ecology of Aquatic Systems (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, ENVS 211. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Study of ecology of oceans, intertidal zones, freshwater lakes, streams, and wetlands. Course includes physics and chemistry of water bodies. Includes taxonomy of aquatic organisms, mechanisms of predation and herbivory, and physiology. Local field trips and laboratory work emphasizes the limnology of Tahoe basin lakes and streams, Great Basin alkaline lakes, and Pacific coast intertidal and deep ocean waters.

BIOL 425: Ecology of Aquatic Systems Lab (1)
Limnology and oceanography fieldwork to accompany BIOL 401. Chemistry and taxonomy, as well as benthic analysis, wave and tidal dynamics, and marine taxonomy will be covered. Includes weekend field trips.

BIOL 487: Field Methods in Ecology (3)
Prerequisites: ENVS 211, MATH 251, BIOL 102, BIOL 381. Basic methods of soil, plant, animal, and hydraulic sampling in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Studies include experimental design; collections and presentation of data; and interpretation of results from both field applications and literature reviews. Ecology of each study site is discussed.

BIOL 480: Special Topics in Biological Science (3)
Varying topics on significant areas including historical developments, recent developments, and critical and theoretical issues associated with biological research.

BIOL 490: Internship in Biological Science (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in biological research. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

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CHEMISTRY

CHEM 101: Chemistry I (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 110 or higher. Corequisite: CHEM 105. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Study of atomic structure, stochiometry, yield, oxidation, thermodynamics, gas law, quantum mechanics, and states of matter.

CHEM 102: Chemistry II (3)
Prerequisite CHEM 101. Corequisite: CHEM 106. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Study of kinetics, strong and weak acids, equilibrium, free energy, electrochemistry, and radioactivity.

CHEM 105: Chemistry Lab I (1)
Corequisite: CHEM 101. Demonstrations for CHEM 101 and analytical chemistry: dehydration, titration, gravimetry, and spectrophotometry.

CHEM 106: Chemistry Lab II (1)
Corequisite: CHEM 102. Demonstrations for CHEM 102 and analytical chemistry: titrations, gran plots, spectrometry, electrochemistry, and rate law determination.

CHEM 311: Organic Chemistry I (3)
Prerequisite: CHEM 102. Lab course must be taken concurrently. The chemistry of carbon, including nomenclature, isomers, reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry, haloalkanes, alcohols, alkenes, and NMR analysis.

CHEM 312: Organic Chemistry II (3)
Prerequisite: CHEM 311. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Further studies of carbon, including IR spectroscopy, alkynes, aldehydes and ketones, ether, carboxy acids, and biomolecules.

CHEM 315: Organic Chemistry Lab I (1)
Laboratory techniques and methods to accompany CHEM 311. Introduces instrument analysis. Lab experiments illustrate fundamental synthetic procedures and some mechanistic investigations.

CHEM 316: Organic Chemistry Lab II (1)
Laboratory techniques and methods to accompany CHEM 312. Introduces instrument analysis. Lab experiments illustrate fundamental synthetic procedures and some mechanistic investigations.

CHEM 451: Physical Chemistry (3)
Prerequisites: CHEM 101, CHEM 102, MATH 130. Extension of thermodynamic principles to study chemical equilibrium, and the equilibria that exist between phases of matter. Specific applications include quantum mechanics, the properties of solutions, electrolytes, and equilibria involving biological membranes. Includes statistical mechanics.

CHEM 471: Biochemistry (3)
Prerequisites: BIOL 101, CHEM 102. Study of the structure and function of biologically important molecules and their roles in life processes. Topics include the flow of gene expression, oxygen-transport proteins, enzyme dynamics, membranes, energy metabolism, and muscle contraction.

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COMPUTER SCIENCE

CSCI 211: Programming Language Concepts (3)
Prerequisites: CORE 101, MATH 101. This course introduces students to the fundamental concepts of program design and implementation. Topics include: variables, constants, expressions, arithmetic and string operations, use of built-in functions, control structures (sequence, selection, repetition, function call, recursion), data structures (built-in data types, user-defined data types, arrays, structures and classes), and algorithms for searching and sorting. The course emphasizes the design process, producing elegant, well-documented, easily maintained programs. The elements of object-oriented programming are introduced.

CSCI 221: Computer Architecture (3)
Prerequisites: CSCI 211. The internal organization and operation of digital computers. Topics include: computer architecture, support for high-level languages (logic, arithmetic, instruction sequencing) and operating systems (I/O, interrupts, memory management, and process switching), internal representation of numeric and non-numeric data, assembly level programming, addressing modes, register management, interrupts, macros and pseudo-ops.

CSCI 231: Introduction to the UNIX/Linux Operating Systems (3)
Prerequisites: CORE 101. This course is designed as a comprehensive introduction to the UNIX/Linux operating systems. Topics include: login and logout, the most important and frequently used UNIX commands, use of visual editors such as vi and emacs, file management, the directory structure, how UNIX handles files, devices and processes, job control, process control, shell scripts and elementary shell programming (including conditionals and loops), communications utilities such as telnet and FTP, elementary system administration.

CSCI 291: Introduction to Information Systems (3) (CTE1)
Prerequisites: CORE 101, and CSCI 211. This course introduces students to computer based information systems through an introduction to programming of Web-based software. Students are introduced to the modern model of the computer in the context of a network. Students create Web pages and programs and applets in JAVA and HTML. Includes an introduction to Carnegie Technology Education software environment, introduction to software development process, clients, servers and data transfer, introduction to naming issues, languages, syntax, interpretation, compilation and execution, program control structures, and data representation (simple types, encapsulated types, multimedia types).

CSCI 311: JAVA Programming (3)
Prerequisite: CSCI 211 or equivalent. This course covers the fundamentals of JAVA programming. The course is designed for the student who already knows how to program using a high-level block structured language, who is familiar with the concepts of object-oriented program development, and who wishes to learn how to use JAVA to create stand-alone applications and web-based applets. Topics include: primitive data structures, user-defined data structures, control structures, classes, packages, graphics, creation and publication of applets, creation of bytecode and native code applications, and an introduction to HTML.

CSCI 313: Programming with Visual BASIC (3)
Prerequisite: CSCI 211. An introduction to event-driven programming using Visual BASIC. Topics include the Visual BASIC development environment, programming concepts, problem solving and program development, and the design of graphical user interfaces. Students will build applications in areas such as business, graphics, music, and games.

CSCI 380: Team Research in Advanced Technology (3)
Prerequisites: CSCI 211. Students work on one of several cutting edge Computer Science projects in which they identify problems, write specifications, and implement solutions. Research usually is performed using the Internet. Projects are designed and completed by teams of students under the supervision of the instructor.

CSCI 392: Introduction to Computer Systems (3) (CTE1)
Prerequisite: CSCI 291 (may be taken concurrently). This course introduces students to the fundamentals of using and maintaining computer systems in an Internet environment. The basic components and functions of the computer and the network are introduced, along with tools and procedures for their operation and maintenance. Includes basic machine architecture (processors, memory, I/O), basic operating system concepts (processes, concurrency, address spaces), I/O devices for storage and multimedia, basics of processing, storage and communication capacity, command processors and scripting, file systems, basic network architecture, installing new software and devices, backups, compression, security, and encryption.

CSCI 393: Object Oriented Programming and Design (3) (CTE1)
Prerequisite: CSCI 291. This course introduces students to problem solving by means of object oriented design and implementation. Emphasis is on problem analysis and solution design, documentation, and implementation. Students use commercial software libraries, and create Web-centric projects. Programming assignments are carried out in JAVA. Topics include modularity and abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, use and creation of software libraries, dynamically allocated data, and simple recursively-defined data structures.

CSCI 394: User-Centered Design and Testing (3) (CTE1)
Prerequisite: CSCI 393 (may be taken concurrently). This course focuses on human-computer interaction teaching basic skills in designing, creating, and evaluating user interfaces. Students learn how to design usable, human-friendly user interfaces using a rapid-prototyping programming language. They also learn how to evaluate interfaces empirically with two usability tools. Visual Basic is used in programming assignments. Topics include: the iterative design process; human cognition and interface design; heuristic evaluation; rapid prototyping; Visual Basic programming; think-aloud usability testing.

CSCI 395: Data Structures and Algorithms (3) (CTE1)
Prerequisite: CSCI 211, CSCI 393. This course focuses on understanding the dependence of execution time, bandwidth and memory requirements on the data structures and algorithms chosen. Students learn to reason informally about algorithm and data structure correctness and complexity. Primary emphasis is given to intelligent selection of algorithms and representations. Topics include abstract data types, data structures and invariants, simple algorithm analysis, sorting and searching, trees and graphs, associative data structures, and the C++ programming language.

CSCI 401: Independent Study (1-5)
Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Independent research project or study of a topic related to Computer Science.

CSCI 411: Compiler Construction (3)
Prerequisites: CSCI 395 or equivalent and MATH 341. This course introduces the student to the design and implementation of compilers. Topics include: compiler organization, algorithms for lexical, syntactic and semantic analysis, top-down and bottom-up parsing (e.g. , recursive descent, LL, LR, LALR parsing), symbol table organization, error detection and recovery, and object code generation.

CSCI 415: Theory of Computation (3)
Prerequisites: CSCI 395 or equivalent, MATH 320 and MATH 341. Introduction to computing theory. Topics include: formal languages, language recognition and generation, finite state machines, regular grammars and languages, deterministic and non-deterministic automata, pushdown automata, context free and context sensitive grammars, Turing machines, Chomsky hierarchy, introduction to computability and decidability.

CSCI 421: Embedded Systems (3)
Prerequisites: CSCI 221. The fundamentals necessary for the design and implementation of programs that execute in embedded environments. Topics include cross-compilation, downloading, debugging, a survey of embedded environments, chip-level constraints, speed and space optimization.

CSCI 441: Artificial Intelligence (3)
Prerequisites: CSCI 395 or equivalent. Co-requisite: MATH 341. An introduction to the basic principles, techniques, and applications of Artificial Intelligence. Topics include: knowledge representation, logic, inferencing, problem solving, search algorithms, game theory, perception, learning, planning, and agent design. Students will program with AI language tools. Additional areas may include expert systems, machine learning, natural language processing, and computer vision.

CSCI 451: Computer Graphics (3)
Prerequisites: CSCI 395 or equivalent. Co-requisites: MATH 320 and MATH 341. This course introduces the algorithms and data structures required for computer graphics. Topics include: 2-D and 3-D geometric transformations and viewing, homogeneous coordinates and matrix representations, projective and perspective transformations, curve and surface representations, clipping and windowing, 3-D object modeling, visible surface detection, illumination models, and rendering algorithms.

CSCI 480: Special Topics in Computer Science (3)
Varying topics on significant areas including historical developments, recent developments, and critical and theoretical issues in Computer Science.

CSCI 481: Senior Research Project in Computers (3)
Prerequisite: Senior standing. The selection, design, implementation and reporting of an approved research project using computers. Requires written progress and final reports.

CSCI 490: Internship in Computer Science (1-5)
Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Supervised work experience in a computer-related position. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per unit. )

CSCI 491: System Level Programming (3) (CTE2)
Prerequisite: CSCI 395 (may be taken concurrently), CSCI 392. This course provides students with a user-level view of processors, networks, and operating systems. Students learn explicitly about assemblers and assembly code, program performance measurement and optimization, memory organization and hierarchies, network protocols and operation, and concurrency. Programming assignments use the C programming language. Topics include overview or instruction sets and assembly language programming, memory management, memory hierarchies, cache, memory, virtual memory, performance measurement and tuning, basic Internet protocols, and basic concurrent programming.

CSCI 492: Database Systems (3) (CTE2)
Prerequisite: CSCI 395 (may be taken concurrently). This course introduces students to database concepts including database design. Relational data models are emphasized. Students develop client-server applications in JAVA and/or Visual Basic, using commercial database management systems. Topics include relational data models and data independence, relational query languages, database design, client-server applications, performance issues, distributed, object-oriented, and multimedia databases.

CSCI 493: Networks and Distributed Computing (3) (CTE2)
Prerequisite: CSCI 491. This course focuses on principles and practices of network-based computing. It begins with an overview of networking technology in support of data and multimedia communication. Topics include a survey of networking protocols and technology, multimedia networking, data distribution, multicast and push-pull techniques, client-server design, thick and thin clients, CORBA and related tools, WWW implementation issues, electronic mail, and security and privacy issues.

CSCI 494: Software Specification, Test and Maintenance (3) (CTE2)
Prerequisites: CSCI 394, CSCI 492. This course focuses on the principles of development of software systems following software engineering practices. Students work in multi-person teams on software projects of significant scale. Topics include life cycle models, requirements analysis, design, inspection, testing, documentation, configuration control, application generators, and CASE tools.

CCSI 495: Software Project Organization and Management (3) (CTE2)
Prerequisite: CSCI 494 (may be taken concurrently). This course focuses on the organizational and management aspects of software projects. Students learn techniques or project planning, scheduling, costing and organization, and apply them in the context of a multi-person project. A key emphasis is management of client issues. Topics include project management techniques, scheduling, budgeting, risk analysis, basic project management tools, leadership principles, client relationships, liability issues, intellectual property issues, and confidentiality issues.

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DIGITAL ENTERTAINMENT

DIGT 201: Introduction to Digital Entertainment (3) (AS)
This course introduces students to the breadth and depth of the issues involved in the field of Entertainment Technology. A variety of ET environments are explored. Students construct several kinds of worlds using various techniques. This is a project-oriented class where students are required to work in small teams.

DIGT 202: Digital Entertainment Travel (3) (AS)
Corequisite:
DIGT 201. This course consists of a field trip to the Los Angeles area to explore and investigate companies in the Digital Entertainment field. Film studios, motion capture studios, sound studios, game production companies, model shops, and other similar companies are visited. Past companies have included Sony Entertainment, Rhythm & Hues, Digital Domain, House of Moves, Pandemic Studios, Blur, Big Machine Designs. The field trip takes place during a single week. A lab fee is required. May be repeated for credit.

DIGT 301: Building Virtual Worlds (3) (AS)
Prerequisites:
DIGT 201. This course extends a student’s ability to design and implement virtual worlds using both graphical and programmatic tools. During the course every student will construct several worlds, using a variety of techniques. Originality and creativity are emphasized. This is a project-oriented class where students are required to work in small teams.

DIGT 302: Building Virtual Worlds Field Trip (3) (AS)
Corequisite:
DIGT 301. This course consists of a field trip to San Francisco to attend the annual Game Developers Conference. Students will be exposed to the latest developments in game development ideas and achievements, a job fair, presentations of the latest games -- some not yet released. The field trip takes place during a single week. A lab fee is required. May be repeated for credit.

DIGT 305: History of Visual Effects in Film (3) (AS)
Prerequisites: ENGL 104. This course presents the history and technique of special or visual effects in film from the 19th Century (George Méliès) to the current digital age of visual effects. These effects can range from the recreation of historical venues, to monsters and to worlds not yet seen. This course serves not only to address this facet of the history of film and cinema, but also the techniques and technology of visual effects including practical effects, miniatures, stop-motion, makeup, mechanical effects, optical effects, motion control, and the digital realm.

DIGT 391: Entertainment Technology Workshop (3) (AS)
Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. This course provides students the opportunity to become familiar with the most significant trends and accomplishments in computer graphics. The entire field can be explored--from theoretical mathematical modeling through digital imagery, special effects, virtual reality, etc. Both hardware and software are presented. Students have the opportunity to attend formal presentations, seminars, workshops, demonstrations, practicums, and explore exhibits.

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EARTH SCIENCES

ESCI 101: Geology (3)
Survey of physical, historical, and environmental geology. Development of landforms, rocks, and minerals; processes of volcanism, weathering, mountain building, glacial and fluvial sculpturing; plate tectonics. Study of those environmental problems with a strong geologic component. Short and long-term geologic effects of human activities.

ESCI 105: Geology Lab (1)

Lab course to accompany ESCI 101. Experiments and exercises with write-ups to supplement lecture material. Local field trips to study Lake Tahoe geology.

ESCI 210: Meteorology (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 101, and CORE 101. Physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Fundamental theories of weather observation and forecasting. Study of precipitation processes, weather observation, forecasting, air masses and fronts. World climatic correlation. Local field study.

ESCI 215: Meteorology Lab (1)
Lab and field work to accompany ESCI 210. Forecasting, observations, precipitation studies, and weather models.

ESCI 301: Hydrology and Water Resources (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 120, MATH 251, ESCI 101. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Study of the behavior of water in nature and the use of that knowledge for the beneficial management of water resources. Includes analysis of rainfall and runoff, snow hydrology, flood frequency analysis, and water resource development.

ESCI 305: Hydrology and Water Resources Lab (1)
Lab and field work to accompany ESCI 301. Ground water supply, precipitation, stream flow, water budgets, flooding and watershed models.

ESCI 311: Soils (3)
Prerequisites: CHEM 101, MATH 251, BIOL 101, BIOL 102. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Study of soil genesis, morphology, and classification; physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil; plant-soil relations; stability, productivity, and management implications; and soil and environmental quality.

ESCI 315: Soils Lab (1)
Lab and field work to accompany ESCI 311. Description of soil profile and measurement of the texture, physical and chemical organic matter, reaction, and natural characteristics of soil.

ESCI 320: Climatology (3)
Prerequisites: MATH 251. Study of previous weather observations and how they shape short-term and long-term forecast models. Uses statistical methods to analyze climatic events, such as global warming and El Nino. Understanding how climatic change affects all plant and animal life.

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

ENVP 321: Resource Planning (3)
Prerequisite: ENVS 211. Objectives, procedures, and instruments of resource planning and management, and analysis of current trends. Review of recent political and cultural concerns relating to the conservation and/or development of our resources in terms of their impact on the environment. Analysis and critique of public policy and planning as mechanisms for minimizing adverse environmental changes by regulating human conduct. Development of strategies for effective application of environmental factors in the public decision making process. Fish and game management, forestry, and marine and wetlands management.

ENVP 390: Internship in Environmental Policy (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in environmental policy making. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

ENVP 423: Environmental Planning and Public Policy (4)
Prerequisites: ENVS 211, MATH 120 or higher, CHEM 101. In-depth analyses of the elements, issues, and techniques of environmental planning at local, regional, national, and international levels. Environmental planning is placed in the context of key public policies. Environmental planning in the Lake Tahoe basin is used to highlight major concepts presented in class.

ENVP 425 Environmental Law (4)
Prerequisite: ENVS 211. Study of federal, state, and local environmental laws. Considers the benefits and limitations of key environmental laws, and the costs and benefits of environmental regulation. In-depth case studies including issues in the Lake Tahoe basin are used to highlight the complexities of creating and implementing environmental laws.

ENVP 481: Senior Research Project in Environmental Policy (3)
Prerequisite: Senior standing. The selection, design, implementation and reporting of an approved environmental policy research project. Requires written progress and final reports.

ENVP 480: Special Topics in Environmental Policy (3)
Varying topics on significant areas including historical developments, recent developments, and critical and theoretical issues associated with environmental policy and planning.

ENVP 490: Internship in Environmental Policy (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in environmental policy making. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ENVS 120: Introduction to Forestry (3)
Fundamentals of forestry, including dendrology, forest management, forest protection, measurements and policy. Multiple use of forest lands including forage, recreation, wildlife, and timber.

ENVS 211: Environmental Science (3)
Prerequisites: CORE 101, ENGL 104, MATH 101 or higher. Corequisite: ENVS 215. A multi-disciplinary study of our Earth’s systems: water, the atmosphere, the earth below us, and living systems. Examination of how the natural sciences have affected geography, commerce, and culture. Study of the natural consequences of human activities including nuclear power, pollution, food production and development. Use of maps, atlases, technical documents, and computer models.

ENVS 215: Environmental Science Lab (1)
Corequisite: ENVS 211. Experiments, exercises, and fieldwork to supplement lecture material.

ENVS 310: Humans in the Environment (3)
Prerequisites: MATH 101 or higher. An interdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their social and natural environments. A combination of skills in computers, mathematics, and writing are used to investigate complex environmental issues. The local and global effects of human population growth, pollution, and consumption of natural resources are examined with numerous case studies. Scientific methodologies are emphasized as tools for environmental problem solving.

ENVS 353: Alternative Energy Systems I (3)
A design, installation and maintenance course in small-scale energy systems. Topics include photovoltaics, wind energy, solar domestic water and space heating, hydro- power, and alternative vehicles. Students will do energy assessments to determine feasibility of a spectrum of energy choices. Combines theory with hands-on practice.

ENVS 354: Alternative Energy Systems II (3)
Prerequisite: ENVS 353. Second semester course in design, installations, and maintenance of small-scale energy systems. Topics include photovoltaics, wind energy, solar domestic water and space heating, hydropower, and alternative vehicles. Consideration of the importance of scale in energy assessment. Combines theory with hands-on practice. Topics vary from semester to semester.

ENVS 355: Environmental Engineering (3)
Prerequisites: ENVS 211, MATH 130, PHYS 201, CHEM 101. Introduction to environmental engineering with emphasis on water quality, air quality and treatment processes. Quantitative analyses of environmental processes as influenced by human activities. Concepts of contaminant cycling through air, water, and soil systems, water and air chemistry, transport models for contaminants, and physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes.

ENVS 390: Internship in Environmental Science (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in environmental concerns. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. Supervision is provided by the faculty and responsible officials in the work situation. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

ENVS 421: Geographical Information Systems (GIS) (3)
Prerequisite: CORE 101, MATH 120, or consent of instructor. Corequisite: ENVS 421. Hands-on course using GIS software, mainly ESRI ArcView. Covers fundamental GIS concepts. Develop basic spatial analysis skills using vector and raster data. Creation and manipulation of geographic databases and themes, geocode addresses, display and query databases, perform spatial analysis, design map layouts, and generate hard-copy maps. Class size limited to available resources.

ENVS 425: Geographical Information Systems Lab. Corequisite: ENVS 421. Activities involve group work, the study GIS technology, the use of GPS receivers to do survey work, visitations with professional GIS workers, and GIS field research.

ENVS 431: Environmental Education (3)
Designed to teach students the methods and philosophy of environmental education and park interpretation. Students learn how to give nature programs in parks and schools and how to design nature trails. The course incorporates fieldwork to implement some of the student's ideas.

ENVS 480: Special Topics in Environmental Science (3)
Varying topics on significant areas including historical developments, recent developments, and critical and theoretical issues associated with environmental science.

ENVS 481: Senior Research Project in Environmental Science (3)
Prerequisite: Senior standing. The selection, design, implementation and reporting of an approved environmental research project. Requires written progress and final reports.

ENVS 490: Internship in Environmental Science (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in environmental concerns. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

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MATHEMATICS

MATH 090: Intermediate Algebra (3)
Review course of basic algebra and a preparation for Mathematical Reasoning (MATH 101) and higher mathematics courses. Basic concepts of geometry, roots, radicals, exponents, factors, polynomials, quadratic equations are covered. Use of a calculator or computer is encouraged where applicable to solve problems. Emphasis on graphing and word problems. Does not count toward graduation or to fulfill math requirement.

MATH 101: Mathematical Reasoning (3)
Prerequisite: Passing MATH 090 with a "C" or better, or equivalent. Mathematical ways of thinking and an overview of many areas of mathematics. Included are parts of algebra, geometry, graph interpretation, probability, statistics, and topology. Emphasis on problem solving. Interesting geometric puzzles and logic problems. Intended to hone a student's reasoning and critical thinking abilities.

MATH 110: College Algebra (3)
Covers first-degree equations, polynomials, inequalities, factors, scientific notation, sequences and series, exponents and logarithmic functions, coordinates and graphs, functions, and roots of polynomial equations. Preparation for precalculus. Does not fulfill math requirement.

MATH 120: Precalculus (5)
Prerequisites: MATH 101 or MATH 110, and CORE 101. A preparatory course for calculus covering functions, trigonometry, real and complex numbers, exponents and logarithms, sequences and series, probability, determinants and matrices, and analytic geometry.

MATH 130: Calculus I (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 120, CORE 101. Differential and integral calculus with a single variable with applications from the fields of science and business. Includes limits, differentiation, integration, and the relationship between them. Problem solving using analytic and numeric methods.

MATH 131: Calculus II (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 130. Covers partial differentiation, multiple integration, vectors, continuity, inverse functions, and differential equations. Solving application problems from many fields using analytic and numeric methods.

MATH 251: Statistics (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 110, CORE 101. An introductory statistics course covering sampling, experimentation, exploratory data analysis, statistical inference, and drawing conclusions from data. Single variable data sets, paired data, and categorical data. Laws of chance and probability theory.

MATH 320: Linear Algebra (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 130. Covers linear equations, matrices, determinants, vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, applications of linear algebra and introduction to linear programming.

MATH 341: Discrete Math (3)
Prerequisites: MATH 120, CORE 101, and completion of one college level programming course. Study of the discrete structures used in mathematics and computer science. Formal logic, mathematical induction, recursion, set theory, relations, functions, graphs, trees, elementary number theory, elementary combinatorics, algebraic structures, discrete probability, automata, elementary analysis of algorithms.

MATH 351: Biological Statistics (3)
Prerequisite: MATH 251 and CORE 101. Study of epidemiology and statistics used in all areas of scientific research. Emphasis is on research design, survey techniques, and design of experiments. Introduction to multivariate statistical analysis procedures.

MATH 396: Mathematical Modeling (1)
Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Math modeling using linear programming, Monte Carlo methods, and other computer programs to model real problems. Students will complete a project for the annual modeling contest sponsored by the Mathematics Association of America.

MATH 410: Quantitative Models (3)
Prerequisites: MATH 130, MATH 251. Operations research course covering linear programming, queuing theory, Monte Carlo simulations, critical path scheduling, inventory models, and predator-prey models. The computer will be used extensively to model real-life situations. One or more major modeling projects will be undertaken and students will enter the annual modeling contest sponsored by the Mathematics Association of America.

MATH 420: Game Theory (3)
Perquisite: MATH 130. Corequisite: MATH 341. This course introduces students to the mathematical theory of games. Topics include: two-person, zero sum games, the minimax theorem, linear programming, the simplex algorithm, infinite games, multistage games, games with incomplete information, utility theory, decision theory, general-sum games, cooperative games, n-person games, market games, bargaining, economic games, dynamic game theory, evolutionary games.

MATH 480: Special Topics in Mathematics (3)
Varying topics on significant areas including historical developments, recent developments, and critical and theoretical issues associated with mathematics.

MATH 481: Senior Research Project in Statistics (3)
Prerequisites: Senior standing. The selection, design, implementation and reporting of an approved research project using statistics. Requires written progress and final reports.

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PHYSICS

PHYS 201: Physics I (3)
Prerequisites: MATH 120, CORE 101. Corequisite: MATH 130. Lab course must be taken concurrently. Covers vectors, Newton's laws of motion, conservation laws of momentum and energy, gravitation, rotational mechanics and oscillations. Topics are integrated with the first semester calculus course (MATH 130).

PHYS 202: Physics II (3)
Prerequisites: MATH 130, PHYS 201 and CORE 101. Corequisite: PHYS 205. Covers electromagnetic fields and potentials of various charge distributions, electric circuits, magnetic fields of currents, and Maxwell's equations. Also covers thermodynamics, waves, light, special relativity, quantum mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics.

PHYS 205: Physics Lab I (1)
Corequisite: PHYS 201. Relevant demonstrations, exercises, and experiments to accompany PHYS 201. Experience in writing up experimental results.

PHYS 206: Physics Lab II (1)
Corequisite: PHYS 202. Relevant demonstrations, exercises, and experiments to accompany PHYS 202. Experience in writing up experimental results.

PHYS 390: Internship in Physics (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in physics research and/or application. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

PHYS 481: Senior Research Project in Physics (3)
Prerequisite: Senior standing. The selection, design, implementation and reporting of an approved physics project. Requires written progress and final reports.

PHYS 490: Internship in Physics (1-6)
Supervised work experience in an approved public or private organization involved in physics research and/or application. Placement will be made with an agency working in an area related to the student's field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

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GENERAL SCIENCE

SCIN 101: Exercise, Nutrition, and Performance (2)
An analysis of the physical, psychological, and sociological principles of exercise, nutrition, and performance. Through the assessment of health history, physical fitness components, dietary patterns, stress responses, addictive behaviors, and the identification of personal goals. Each student will develop a personal profile and plan strategies to facilitate behavior change in order to promote a more healthy lifestyle and achieve peak performance.

SCIN 218: Biomechanics of Skiing (2)
Study of the universal ski techniques based on anatomy and physics. Recommended for ski coaches, instructors and students of skiing theory, and pre-physical therapy students.

SCIN 301: Science and Technology in Modern Life (3)
Corequisite: SCIN 305. Introduction to the physical sciences: physics, chemistry, and technology. History of science and the methods of discovery, and how science has directed history and affected the modern world. Philosophy, principles and methods used in scientific discovery and analysis.

SCIN 305: Science and Technology in Modern Life Lab (1)
Corequisite: SCIN 301. Experiments and fieldwork to accompany the lecture course. Focus is on the scientific methods used in discovery.

SCIN 320: Human Nutrition (3)
Introduction to the principles of nutrition and their application to well balanced diets and healthy eating behaviors, exploration of current nutritional issues and controversies.

SCIN 391-395: Internship in Science (1-5)
Supervised work experience in a science related position. Placement is made with an agency working in an area related to the student’s field of study. The faculty and responsible officials in the work situation provide supervision. Paid or volunteer basis. (Requires 50 hours of work per credit. )

SCIN 481: Senior Research Project in Science (3)
Prerequisite: Senior standing. The selection, design, implementation and reporting of an approved scientific research project. Requires written progress and final reports.

SCIN 492: Creative Problem Solving (3)
Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Participation in a Creative Problem Solving project with a team of selected students. A creative project will be entered in regional, state, and world competitions.

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